Rick and Morty and Tidy Data Principles (Part 1)

Updated 2018-03-25

Motivation

After reading The Life Changing Magic of Tidying Text and A tidy text analysis of Rick and Morty I thought about doing something similar but reproducible and focused on Rick and Morty.

In this post I’ll focus on the Tidy Data principles. However, here is the Github repo with the scripts to scrap the transcripts and subtitles of Rick and Morty.

Here I’m using the subtitles of the TV show, as some of the transcripts I could scrap were incomplete.

Note: If some images appear too small on your screen you can open them in a new tab to show them in their original size.

Let’s scrap

The subtools package returns a data frame after reading srt files. In addition to that resulting data frame I wanted to explicitly point the season and chapter of each line of the subtitles. To do that I had to scrap the subtitles and then use str_replace_all. To follow the steps clone the repo from Github:

git clone https://github.com/pachamaltese/rick_and_morty_tidy_text

Rick and Morty Can Be So Tidy

After reading the tidy file I created after scraping the subtitles, I use unnest_tokens to divide the subtitles in words. This function uses the tokenizers package to separate each line into words. The default tokenizing is for words, but other options include characters, sentences, lines, paragraphs, or separation around a regex pattern.

if (!require("pacman")) install.packages("pacman")
p_load(data.table, tidyr, tidytext, dplyr, ggplot2, viridis, ggstance, igraph, ggraph)
p_load_gh("dgrtwo/widyr")

rick_and_morty_subs <- as_tibble(fread("../../data/2017-10-13-rick-and-morty-tidy-data/rick_and_morty_subs.csv"))

rick_and_morty_subs_tidy <- rick_and_morty_subs %>% 
  unnest_tokens(word,text) %>% 
  anti_join(stop_words)

The data is in one-word-per-row format, and we can manipulate it with tidy tools like dplyr. For example, in the last chunk I used an anti_join to remove words such a “a”, “an” or “the”.

Then we can use count to find the most common words in all of Rick and Morty episodes as a whole.

rick_and_morty_subs_tidy %>%
  count(word, sort = TRUE)
# A tibble: 8,116 x 2
   word       n
   <chr>  <int>
 1 morty   1898
 2 rick    1691
 3 jerry    646
 4 yeah     484
 5 gonna    421
 6 summer   409
 7 hey      391
 8 uh       331
 9 time     319
10 beth     301
# ... with 8,106 more rows

Sentiment analysis can be done as an inner join. Three sentiment lexicons are in the tidytext package in the sentiment dataset. Let’s examine how sentiment changes changes during each season. Let’s find a sentiment score for each word using the Bing lexicon, then count the number of positive and negative words in defined sections of each season.

bing <- sentiments %>%
  filter(lexicon == "bing") %>%
  select(-score)

bing
# A tibble: 6,788 x 3
   word        sentiment lexicon
   <chr>       <chr>     <chr>  
 1 2-faced     negative  bing   
 2 2-faces     negative  bing   
 3 a+          positive  bing   
 4 abnormal    negative  bing   
 5 abolish     negative  bing   
 6 abominable  negative  bing   
 7 abominably  negative  bing   
 8 abominate   negative  bing   
 9 abomination negative  bing   
10 abort       negative  bing   
# ... with 6,778 more rows
rick_and_morty_sentiment <- rick_and_morty_subs_tidy %>%
  inner_join(bing) %>% 
  count(episode_name, index = linenumber %/% 50, sentiment) %>% 
  spread(sentiment, n, fill = 0) %>% 
  mutate(sentiment = positive - negative) %>%
  left_join(rick_and_morty_subs_tidy[,c("episode_name","season","episode")] %>% distinct()) %>% 
  arrange(season,episode) %>% 
  mutate(episode_name = paste(season,episode,"-",episode_name),
         season = factor(season, labels = c("Season 1", "Season 2", "Season 3"))) %>% 
  select(episode_name, season, everything(), -episode)

rick_and_morty_sentiment
# A tibble: 438 x 6
   episode_name    season   index negative positive sentiment
   <chr>           <fct>    <dbl>    <dbl>    <dbl>     <dbl>
 1 S01 E01 - Pilot Season 1    0.       6.       3.       -3.
 2 S01 E01 - Pilot Season 1    1.      10.       0.      -10.
 3 S01 E01 - Pilot Season 1    2.       3.       1.       -2.
 4 S01 E01 - Pilot Season 1    3.      10.       4.       -6.
 5 S01 E01 - Pilot Season 1    4.       2.       5.        3.
 6 S01 E01 - Pilot Season 1    5.       8.       4.       -4.
 7 S01 E01 - Pilot Season 1    6.       6.       1.       -5.
 8 S01 E01 - Pilot Season 1    7.       7.       4.       -3.
 9 S01 E01 - Pilot Season 1    8.      14.       5.       -9.
10 S01 E01 - Pilot Season 1    9.       3.       2.       -1.
# ... with 428 more rows

Now we can plot these sentiment scores across the plot trajectory of each season. In the second plot I’m just showing Dan Harmon’s favourite episodes provided at the moment the show has 31 episodes in total.

ggplot(rick_and_morty_sentiment, aes(index, sentiment, fill = season)) +
  geom_bar(stat = "identity", show.legend = FALSE) +
  facet_wrap(~season, nrow = 3, scales = "free_x", dir = "v") +
  theme_minimal(base_size = 13) +
  labs(title = "Sentiment in Rick and Morty",
       y = "Sentiment") +
  scale_fill_viridis(end = 0.75, discrete = TRUE) +
  scale_x_discrete(expand = c(0.02,0)) +
  theme(strip.text = element_text(hjust = 0)) +
  theme(strip.text = element_text(face = "italic")) +
  theme(axis.title.x = element_blank()) +
  theme(axis.ticks.x = element_blank()) +
  theme(axis.text.x = element_blank())

rick_and_morty_sentiment_favourites <- rick_and_morty_sentiment %>% 
  filter(grepl("S03 E03|S03 E07|S01 E06|S02 E03|S02 E07", episode_name))
  
ggplot(rick_and_morty_sentiment_favourites, aes(index, sentiment, fill = season)) +
  geom_bar(stat = "identity", show.legend = FALSE) +
  facet_wrap(~episode_name, ncol = 3, scales = "free_x", dir = "h") +
  theme_minimal(base_size = 13) +
  labs(title = "Sentiment in Rick and Morty\n(Creator's favourite episodes)",
       y = "Sentiment") +
  scale_fill_viridis(end = 0.75, discrete = TRUE) +
  scale_x_discrete(expand = c(0.02,0)) +
  theme(strip.text = element_text(hjust = 0)) +
  theme(strip.text = element_text(face = "italic")) +
  theme(axis.title.x = element_blank()) +
  theme(axis.ticks.x = element_blank()) +
  theme(axis.text.x = element_blank())

Looking at Units Beyond Words

Lots of useful work can be done by tokenizing at the word level, but sometimes it is useful or necessary to look at different units of text. For example, some sentiment analysis algorithms look beyond only unigrams (i.e. single words) to try to understand the sentiment of a sentence as a whole. These algorithms try to understand that I am not having a good day is a negative sentence, not a positive one, because of negation.

rick_and_morty_sentences <- rick_and_morty_subs %>% 
  group_by(season) %>% 
  unnest_tokens(sentence, text, token = "sentences") %>% 
  ungroup()

Let’s look at just one.

rick_and_morty_sentences$sentence[99]
[1] "grandpa's about to un-freeze time."

We can use tidy text analysis to ask questions such as what are the most negative episodes in each of Rick and Morty’s seasons? First, let’s get the list of negative words from the Bing lexicon. Second, let’s make a dataframe of how many words are in each chapter so we can normalize for the length of chapters. Then, let’s find the number of negative words in each chapter and divide by the total words in each chapter. Which chapter has the highest proportion of negative words?

bingnegative <- sentiments %>%
  filter(lexicon == "bing", sentiment == "negative")

wordcounts <- rick_and_morty_subs_tidy %>%
  group_by(season, episode) %>%
  summarize(words = n())

rick_and_morty_subs_tidy %>%
  semi_join(bingnegative) %>%
  group_by(season, episode) %>%
  summarize(negativewords = n()) %>%
  left_join(wordcounts, by = c("season", "episode")) %>%
  mutate(ratio = negativewords/words) %>%
  top_n(1)
# A tibble: 3 x 5
# Groups:   season [3]
  season episode negativewords words ratio
  <chr>  <chr>           <int> <int> <dbl>
1 S01    E07               134  1250 0.107
2 S02    E01               184  1386 0.133
3 S03    E06               197  1486 0.133

Networks of Words

Another function in widyr is pairwise_count, which counts pairs of items that occur together within a group. Let’s count the words that occur together in the lines of the first season.

rick_and_morty_words <- rick_and_morty_subs_tidy %>%
  filter(season == "S01")

word_cooccurences <- rick_and_morty_words %>%
  pairwise_count(word, linenumber, sort = TRUE)

word_cooccurences
# A tibble: 222,210 x 3
   item1 item2     n
   <chr> <chr> <dbl>
 1 morty rick   481.
 2 rick  morty  481.
 3 jerry rick   253.
 4 rick  jerry  253.
 5 jerry morty  243.
 6 morty jerry  243.
 7 yeah  rick   138.
 8 rick  yeah   138.
 9 yeah  morty  136.
10 morty yeah   136.
# ... with 222,200 more rows

This can be useful, for example, to plot a network of co-occuring words with the igraph and ggraph packages.

set.seed(1717)

word_cooccurences %>%
  filter(n >= 25) %>%
  graph_from_data_frame() %>%
  ggraph(layout = "fr") +
  geom_edge_link(aes(edge_alpha = n, edge_width = n), edge_colour = "#a8a8a8") +
  geom_node_point(color = "darkslategray4", size = 8) +
  geom_node_text(aes(label = name), vjust = 2.2) +
  ggtitle(expression(paste("Word Network in Rick and Morty's ", 
                           italic("Season One")))) +
  theme_void()

It looks good! at least it contains the main characters and Rick’s swearing.